or Questioned Documents:
Popularly known as Handwriting Analysis/Examination, Signature Analysis, Document Fraud Detection etc...
Anything written, drawn, indented or printed on any article such as paper, wood, wall, cardboard etc to make sense or to express something is called a document in a much broader context. However in a civilized society the general documents we use are written or printed words on paper that can be used as a official record of something if a person, group or organization, department undertakes its responsibility i.e. by signing, by seal etc..
A document can be anything like, Agreement, cheque, will, register, bill etc.. These are sometimes denied by their supposed writers, forged, questioned, claimed to be non authentic. In other case sometimes the writer himself has to prove his claim.
A questioned document is one in which a document as entirety, or in part, is subjected to question or the authenticity/origin of it is in doubt. It can be anything E.g. signature, handwriting, typewriting or other marks whose authenticity comes under doubt.
Question Document Examiner:
Examines the whole documents to recognize the source and determine authenticity of the document which is in question. A document expert examines the class and individual characteristics of handwriting.
Class characteristics: the common pattern of the handwriting, letters shape etc limited to a group, age, language etc.
Individual characteristics: Characteristics those are limited only to a specific writer. This makes handwriting unique.
Characters that expert looks for: Skills , Slant, Movement, Proportions Height, Dot, Crossing, Loops, Pressure, Alignment, Pen jumps , pen Speed, Entry/Exit Strokes, Retracing, Spacing, Format etc.
Indian Penal Code
In India the Fraud, Forgery, Tampering of evidence is punished IPC (Indian Penal Code). In special situation Indian Evidence act also comes into play.
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